Wheat Flours

wheat flour   Includes: (from hardest to softest flours)  durum wheat flour and semolina flour (typically used for making pastas), whole wheat flour and graham flour (typically mixed with all-purpose or bread flour to make bread or baked goods), bread flour (typically used for making yeast breads), all-purpose flour (can be used for breads and baked goods), pastry flour (typically used for pastries), and cake flour (typically used for cakes).  Substitutions:  See the all-purpose flour listing.

Substitutes:

For general baking

  • barley flour (This has a mild flavor and works especially well in pancakes, cookies, and quick breads.  Replace up to half of any wheat flour in a recipe with this.  Contains some gluten.) OR
  • buckwheat flour (This is especially good in pancakes.  It tends to make baked goods heavier and stronger tasting.  Replace up to half of the wheat flour in any recipe with this.  Contains some gluten.) OR
  • oat flour (This is especially good in quick breads and cookies.  It makes baked goods moister, chewier, and more crumbly.  Contains some gluten.) OR
  • brown rice flour (This is especially good for those with wheat allergies; replace up to 1/4 of any wheat flour with this.  Baked goods made with rice flour tend to be crumbly, so consider substituting a mixture of one part arrowroot or other thickener plus four parts rice flour.  Adding more eggs is another way to reduce crumbliness.  Since rice flour absorbs more moisture, you may need to add more liquid to recipe.) OR
  • corn flour (This is a good substitute for those with wheat allergies.) OR
  • millet flour (This has a more pronounced flavor than all-purpose flour, and it tends to make baked goods coarse and dry.  Replace up to 1/5 of any wheat flour with this.) OR
  • potato flour (Replace up to 1/4 of any wheat flour in a recipe with this.  Substitute 5/8 cup potato flour for 1 cup all-purpose flour.) OR
  • soy flour (This is high in protein, but has a very strong flavor.  Replace up to 1/4 of any wheat flour with this, then increase the liquid in the recipe and reduce the oven temperature by 25 degrees.) OR
  • quinoa flour (This is higher in fat than all-purpose flour, so it tends to make baked goods moister.  Replace up to 1/2 of the wheat flour in the recipe with this.) OR
  • non-waxy rice flour (This is good for those with wheat allergies.  Replace up to 1/4 of any wheat flour with this.  Baked goods made with rice flour tend to be crumbly, so consider substituting a mixture of one part arrowroot or other thickener plus four parts rice flour.  Adding more eggs is another way to reduce crumbliness.   Since rice flour absorbs more moisture than all-purpose flour, you may need to add more liquid to the recipe or substitute only 7/8 C rice flour for each cup of all-purpose flour.) OR
  • wheat germ (This makes for a more nutritious product.  Replace up to 1/3 of the flour with this.) OR
  • amaranth flour (This is higher in fat than all-purpose flour.) OR
  • spelt flour (This tends to make baked goods heavier, so consider increasing the baking powder so that the product rises more.   Spelt is tolerated by most people with wheat allergies, and it’s great for making pasta and bread.) OR
  • kamut flour (This is tolerated by most people with wheat allergies, and it works well in pasta and bread recipes.  It works best if combined with other flours.) OR
  • ground Passover matzo (A traditional substitution for Jews during Passover.) OR
  • potato starch (Another good substitution for Jews during Passover.)
  • cocoa (Substitute 1/4 cup unsweetened cocoa powder for 2 tablespoons flour.)

For yeast breads

  • light rye flour (Replace up to 40% of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this and knead gently.  Try increasing the yeast so that the bread rises more.  Rye flour imparts an interesting, slightly sour flavor to breads.  Contains some gluten.) OR
  • medium rye flour (Replace up to one-third of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this and knead gently.  Try increasing the yeast so that the bread rises more.  Rye flour imparts an interesting, slightly sour flavor to breads.  Contains some gluten.) OR
  • dark rye flour (Replace up to one-fourth of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this and knead gently.  Try increasing the yeast so that the bread rises more.  Rye flour imparts an interesting, slightly sour flavor to breads.  Contains some gluten.) ) OR
  • triticale flour (Replace up to half of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this, knead gently, and let rise only once.) OR
  • barley flour (This has a mild flavor.  Replace up to 1/6 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this.  Contains some gluten.) OR
  • brown rice flour (Replace up to 1/5 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this, and try increasing the yeast so that the bread rises more.  This is a good substitute for those with wheat allergies.) OR
  • buckwheat flour (This has a more pronounced flavor than wheat bread.  Replace up to 1/5 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this.  Contains some gluten.) OR
  • corn flour (Replace up to 1/5 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this, and try increasing the yeast so that the bread rises more.) OR
  • millet flour (This has a more pronounced flavor than wheat flour, and tends to make breads coarse and dry.  Replace up to 1/5 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this.) OR
  • oat flour (Replace up to 1/4 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this, and try increasing the yeast so that the bread rises more.) OR
  • potato flour (Replace up to 1/6 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this.  Substitute 5/8 cup potato flour for each cup of all-purpose flour.) OR
  • soy flour (This is high in protein, but has a very strong flavor.  Replace up to 1/8 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this, increase the liquid in recipe, and reduce oven temperature by 25 degrees.  Also consider increasing the yeast so that the bread rises more.) OR
  • soya flour (Replace up to 1/5 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this.) OR
  • quinoa flour (This is higher in fat, so it tends to make bread moister.  Replace up to 1/4 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this.) OR
  • non-waxy rice flour (Replace up to 1/5 of any wheat flour with this, and either increase the liquid in recipe or substitute 7/8 cup rice flour for each cup of all-purpose flour.  Also try increasing the yeast so that the bread rises more.) OR
  • wheat germ (This makes bread more nutritious.  Replace up to a third of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this.) OR
  • amaranth flour (This is higher in fat than wheat flour.  Replace up to a fourth of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this.) OR
  • spelt flour (This tends to make bread heavier.  Try increasing the yeast so that the bread rises more.  Spelt flour is tolerated by most people with wheat allergies.) OR
  • kamut flour (This is tolerated by most people with wheat allergies.)

For coating fish and meat before frying

  • water chestnut flour (makes coating lighter and crunchier) OR
  • cornstarch OR
  • tapioca starch

Varieties:

all-purpose flour = flour = plain flour (Britain)    Notes:  Bleached and unbleached versions of all-purpose flour can be used interchangeably, though bleached flour is whiter and has less vitamin E than unbleached.  Equivalents:  1 pound = 3 3/4 cups unsifted flour = 4 cups sifted flour

Substitutes:

For general baking

  • whole wheat flour (Replace no more than half of the all-purpose flour with this and add half again as much baking powder plus a bit more liquid to the recipe.  Compared to all-purpose flour, whole wheat flour makes baked goods denser and coarser in texture.  It provides more fiber but about the same nutrients as enriched all-purpose flour.) OR
  • self-rising flour (Omit salt and baking powder from recipe.  Don’t use this in yeast breads or pie crusts.) OR
  • pastry flour (This doesn’t work well in cookies.) OR
  • cake flour (Don’t use this in bread. It also doesn’t work well in cookies, quick breads, muffins, and biscuits–it makes them very crumbly. In a pinch, substitute one cup of all-purpose flour with one cup plus two tablespoons of cake flour.) OR
  • barley flour (This has a mild flavor and works especially well in pancakes, cookies, and quick breads.  Replace up to half of any wheat flour in a recipe with this.  Contains some gluten.) OR
  • buckwheat flour (This is especially good in pancakes.  It tends to make baked goods heavier and stronger tasting.  Replace up to half of the wheat flour in any recipe with this.  Contains some gluten.) OR
  • oat flour (This is especially good in quick breads and cookies.  It makes baked goods moister, chewier, and more crumbly.  Contains some gluten.) OR
  • brown rice flour (This is especially good for those with wheat allergies; replace up to 1/4 of any wheat flour with this.  Baked goods made with rice flour tend to be crumbly, so consider substituting a mixture of one part arrowroot or other thickener plus four parts rice flour.  Adding more eggs is another way to reduce crumbliness.  Since rice flour absorbs more moisture, you may need to add more liquid to recipe.) OR
  • corn flour (This is a good substitute for those with wheat allergies.) OR
  • millet flour (This has a more pronounced flavor than all-purpose flour, and it tends to make baked goods coarse and dry.  Replace up to 1/5 of any wheat flour with this.) OR
  • potato flour (Replace up to 1/4 of any wheat flour in a recipe with this.  Substitute 5/8 cup potato flour for 1 cup all-purpose flour.) OR
  • soy flour (This is high in protein, but has a very strong flavor.  Replace up to 1/4 of any wheat flour with this, then increase the liquid in the recipe and reduce the oven temperature by 25 degrees.) OR
  • quinoa flour (This is higher in fat than all-purpose flour, so it tends to make baked goods moister.  Replace up to 1/2 of the wheat flour in the recipe with this.) OR
  • non-waxy rice flour (This is good for those with wheat allergies.  Replace up to 1/4 of any wheat flour with this.  Baked goods made with rice flour tend to be crumbly, so consider substituting a mixture of one part arrowroot or other thickener plus four parts rice flour.  Adding more eggs is another way to reduce crumbliness.   Since rice flour absorbs more moisture than all-purpose flour, you may need to add more liquid to the recipe or substitute only 7/8 C rice flour for each cup of all-purpose flour.) OR
  • wheat germ (This makes for a more nutritious product.  Replace up to 1/3 of the flour with this.) OR
  • amaranth flour (This is higher in fat than all-purpose flour.) OR
  • spelt flour (This tends to make baked goods heavier, so consider increasing the baking powder so that the product rises more.   Spelt is tolerated by most people with wheat allergies, and it’s great for making pasta and bread.) OR
  • kamut flour (This is tolerated by most people with wheat allergies, and it works well in pasta and bread recipes.  It works best if combined with other flours.) OR
  • ground Passover matzo (A traditional substitution for Jews during Passover.) OR
  • potato starch (Another good substitution for Jews during Passover.)

For yeast breads

  • bread flour (This makes for a larger loaf, but it’s harder to knead.) OR
  • whole wheat flour (Replace up to half of the white flour in the recipe with this.  If the whole wheat flour is coarsely ground, substitute 1 1/8 cup whole wheat flour for 1 cup all-purpose flour.) OR
  • light rye flour (Replace up to 40% of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this and knead gently.  Try increasing the yeast so that the bread rises more.  Rye flour imparts an interesting, slightly sour flavor to breads.  Contains some gluten.) OR
  • medium rye flour (Replace up to one-third of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this and knead gently.  Try increasing the yeast so that the bread rises more.  Rye flour imparts an interesting, slightly sour flavor to breads.  Contains some gluten.) OR
  • dark rye flour (Replace up to one-fourth of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this and knead gently.  Try increasing the yeast so that the bread rises more.  Rye flour imparts an interesting, slightly sour flavor to breads.  Contains some gluten.) ) OR
  • triticale flour (Replace up to half of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this, knead gently, and let rise only once.) OR
  • barley flour (This has a mild flavor.  Replace up to 1/6 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this.  Contains some gluten.) OR
  • brown rice flour (Replace up to 1/5 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this, and try increasing the yeast so that the bread rises more.  This is a good substitute for those with wheat allergies.) OR
  • buckwheat flour (This has a more pronounced flavor than wheat bread.  Replace up to 1/5 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this.  Contains some gluten.) OR
  • corn flour (Replace up to 1/5 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this, and try increasing the yeast so that the bread rises more.) OR
  • millet flour (This has a more pronounced flavor than wheat flour, and tends to make breads coarse and dry.  Replace up to 1/5 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this.) OR
  • oat flour (Replace up to 1/4 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this, and try increasing the yeast so that the bread rises more.) OR
  • potato flour (Replace up to 1/6 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this.  Substitute 5/8 cup potato flour for each cup of all-purpose flour.) OR
  • soy flour (This is high in protein, but has a very strong flavor.  Replace up to 1/8 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this, increase the liquid in recipe, and reduce oven temperature by 25 degrees.  Also consider increasing the yeast so that the bread rises more.) OR
  • soya flour (Replace up to 1/5 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this.) OR
  • quinoa flour (This is higher in fat, so it tends to make bread moister.  Replace up to 1/4 of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this.) OR
  • non-waxy rice flour (Replace up to 1/5 of any wheat flour with this, and either increase the liquid in recipe or substitute 7/8 cup rice flour for each cup of all-purpose flour.  Also try increasing the yeast so that the bread rises more.) OR
  • wheat germ (This makes bread more nutritious.  Replace up to a third of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this.) OR
  • amaranth flour (This is higher in fat than wheat flour.  Replace up to a fourth of the wheat flour in a bread recipe with this.) OR
  • spelt flour (This tends to make bread heavier.  Try increasing the yeast so that the bread rises more.  Spelt flour is tolerated by most people with wheat allergies.) OR
  • kamut flour (This is tolerated by most people with wheat allergies.)

For coating fish and meat before frying

  • water chestnut flour (makes coating lighter and crunchier) OR
  • cornstarch OR
  • tapioca starch

Notes:  See also flour in the thickeners section of the Cook’s Thesaurus.biscuit mix  Notes:    Use this mix to make biscuits as well as pancakes and other baked goods.  Bisquick is a well-known brand.   To make biscuits from biscuit mix, combine 2 parts biscuit mix with 1 part water, roll out on floured surface, cut into biscuits, and bake for about 10 minutes at 425º.   To make your own:   Combine 3 cups flour (preferable cake or pastry flour), 1/3 cup powdered milk, 1 tablespoon baking powder, 1 teaspoon salt, and 1/2 cup shortening.  Sift together the dry ingredients, then mix in the shortening until the mix reaches a sandy consistency.  Cover and store in a cool place.

Bisquick  See biscuit mix.

bran  See wheat bran.

bread flour = hard-wheat flour  =  strong flour = high-gluten flour  Notes:  This flour has a high level of gluten, which gives bread more structure.  Don’t confuse it with gluten flour (also called vital wheat gluten), which is pure gluten and used as a bread additive or to make seitan.   Substitutes:   all-purpose flour (easier to knead; will result in smaller loaf; consider supplementing with gluten according to package directions or add 2 teaspoons per cup of flour)  Notes:  To see how to substitute other flours when making yeast breads, see the listing under all-purpose flour.

cake flour = soft-wheat flour   Equivalents:   4 1/2 cups cake flour = 1 pound  Includes:   self-rising cake flour   These substitutions will perform better if you also do this:  (1) Mix the batter as little as possible. (2) Separate eggs, beat the whites, and fold them into the batter  Substitutes:   pastry flour  (This has more protein than cake flour but less than all-purpose flour. Cakes made with pastry flour tend to be a bit less delicate and crumbly.) OR  all purpose flour (Substitute 7/8 cup all-purpose flour for each cup of cake flour and add 2 tablespoons of cornstarch for every 7/8 cup all-purpose flour used.  Cakes made with all purpose flour tend to be less delicate and crumbly.)

Cream of Wheat  See farina.

durum wheat flour  Substitutes:  semolina flour

farina = sooji   Notes:  Cream of Wheat is a popular brand.

flour  See all-purpose flour

graham flour  Substitutes:  whole wheat flour (fewer nutrients)

gluten flour = instant gluten flour = pure gluten flour = vital wheat gluten   Notes:  This is flour with the starch and bran removed.  Don’t confuse it with bread flour = high-gluten flour, which is gluten-fortified flour, or with gluten = seitan, a meat analogue used in vegetarian dishes.  Pure gluten flour is usually added to regular flour to turn it into bread flour, or it’s used to make seitan.

hard-wheat flour   See bread flour.  

high-gluten flour  See bread flour.

instant gluten flour  See gluten flour

pancake flour  See self-rising flour.

pastry flour  Shopping hints:  Look for this in health food stores and specialty shops.  Substitutes: equal parts cake flour and all-purpose flour OR 7/8 C all-purpose flour + 2 tablespoons cornstarch OR 7/8 C all-purpose flour (All-purpose flour has more gluten than pastry flour–and gluten makes baked goods tougher. To offset this, handle the dough as little as possible, chill the fat before cutting it into the flour, add the minimal amount of liquid, and consider adding more fat to the recipe.)

plain flour  See all-purpose flour.

pure gluten flour  See gluten flour

self-rising flour = (in older cookbooks) pancake flour  Shopping hints:  This is more commonly used in the South than in the North. Substitutes: 1 C all-purpose flour + 1 ½ teaspoons baking powder + ½ teaspoon salt

semolina  Substitutes:  durum wheat flour (also good for pastas, inferior color) OR kamut flour (This makes a decent pasta and can be tolerated by most people with wheat allergies) OR spelt flour (Like kamut flour, this makes a good pasta and is tolerated by most people with wheat allergies.) OR all-purpose flour (Pasta made entirely of this is less firm than that made with semolina. To keep it from getting mushy, cook the pasta in plenty of water and eat it immediately after it’s cooked.)

soft-wheat flour  See cake flour.

sooji    See farina.  

stone-ground whole wheat flour   See whole wheat flour.

strong flour  See bread flour

unbleached flour  Substitutes: bleached flour (for more information, visit the Illinois Cooperative Extension’s Unbleached Flour page)

vital wheat gluten  See gluten flour.

wheat bran = bran    Substitutes: oat bran (moister, more appealing flavor than wheat bran) OR wheat germ

wheat germ  Substitutes: wheat bran (as ingredient in baked goods) OR ground sunflower seeds (to add protein to bread)

white flour  See bread flour, all-purpose flour, pastry flour, or cake flour.

wholemeal flour  See whole wheat flour.

whole wheat flour = wholemeal flour (Britain)   Includes:  regular and stone-ground whole wheat flour (better flavor, coarser texture, similar nutrients)  Substitutes:  graham flour (more nutrients) OR all-purpose flour (makes lighter, larger loaves of bread) OR (in yeast breads) up to 1/4 C gluten flour (this improves the bread’s texture)  To see how to substitute other flours for wheat flours when making yeast breads, see the listing under all-purpose flour.

Equivalents

all-purpose flour: 1 pound = 3 3/4 C unsifted = 4 C sifted

cake flour:  1 pound = 4 1/2 C

whole wheat flour: 1 pound = 3 1/3 C

See also the  Flour Weights posting on RecipeSource.com.

Links

For more information on flour substitutes, visit the Functions of Baking Ingredients page, or the Illinois Cooperative Extension Service’s Flour–Substitutes page.   If you’re allergic to wheat flour, visit the Gluten-free cooking and baking hints page or the Basic Rice Recipes for Those with Allergies page, or the Gluten-free Bread page posted on RecipeSource.com.

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About д§mд

An amateur photographer/blogger who loves to shoot. People, Things, Places.Tend to see things from weird angles to make them look interesting in photographs.Capturing their souls. Photography is my journey into soul exploration.

13 responses »

  1. Muddasir says:

    Hi Asma Baji,

    Just wanted to inquire one thing i.e what is wheat germ called in urdu.

  2. a s m a says:

    walaykum hi,

    wheat germ, hmm have no idea … I’ll ask someone :s

  3. Muddasir says:

    Okay, would be grateful 🙂

  4. a s m a says:

    🙂

    Stay tight then!

  5. zara says:

    Wheat Germ in Urdu is NISHASTA

  6. zara says:

    Wow! this is an old post!
    Sorry! I only saw the date after submitting my post! However, hope it is still a useful one.

  7. Inayat says:

    I also need translation of below mentioned fruits & vigitable etc.Please translate::: 1)bee pollen.2) brewer’s yeast.3)torula yeast.4) Caviar.5) lecithin.6)royal jelly.7) Acerola fruite 8)Seaweed.

    Please Reply on this portal or email it on my “Syko_ir@yahoo.com”

    Inayat-Ur-Rehman
    Peshawar

  8. Inayat says:

    Please Miss Zara reply

  9. Jovita Scroggs says:

    i have some weight allergy and what i do is just bake some cake that are made out of guar gum. “.:;,

    Our new internet page
    http://www.caramoantravel.com

  10. Ralph says:

    Hi i am kavin, its my first occasion to commenting anyplace, when i read this post i thought i could also create comment due to this good piece of writing.

  11. kashif malik says:

    hi if some body want to buy toasted wheat Germ 500g @ 3000 then please mail me at kashif998@gmail.com

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